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Ringkasan pengetatan persyaratan Pelaku Perjalanan Dalam Negeri (PPDN) / Aturan Mudik 2021!

Pemerintah telah resmi meniadakan mudik lebaran mulai tanggal 6 – 17 Mei 2021 sebagaimana diatur dalam Addendum Surat Edaran Satgas COVID 13/2021 dengan cara mengatur pengetatan persyaratan Pelaku Perjalanan Dalam Negeri (PPDN).

Pelaksanaan PPDN tersebut akan dilakukan pada:

  1. Periode H-14 menjelang masa peniadaan mudik yang berlaku mulai 22 April 2021 hingga 5 Mei 2021.
  2. Periode H+7 pasca masa peniadaan mudik yang berlaku mulai tanggal 18 Mei 2021 hingga 24 Mei 2021.

Beberapa ketentuan protokol sebagai syarat perjalanan mudik:

  1. Wajib menunjukkan surat keterangan hasil negative tes RT-PCR/rapid test antigen yang sampelnya diambil maksimal 1 x 24 jam sebelum keberangkatan, atau
  2. Surat keterangan hasil negatif tes GeNose C19 di Bandar Udara, Pelabuhan, Stasiun Kereta Api, Rest Area, dan mengisi e-HAC Indonesia.
  3. Pengisian e-HAC Indonesia dihimbau bagi pelaku perjalanan dengan seluruh moda transportasi darat umum/pribadi
  4. Anak-anak di bawah usia 5 tahun tidak diwajibkan untuk melakukan tes RT-PCR/rapid test antigen/tes GeNose C19 sebagai syarat perjalanan;
  5. Apabila hasil tes RT-PCR/rapid test antigen/tes GeNose C19 pelaku perjalanan negatif namun menunjukkan gejala, maka pelaku perjalanan tidak boleh melanjutkan perjalanan dan diwajibkan tes diagnostic RT-PCR dan isolasi mandiri selama waktu tunggu hasil pemeriksaan;
  6. Kementerian/Lembaga/Perangkat Daerah yang menyelenggarakan fungsi terkait menindaklanjuti Addendum Surat Edaran ini dengan mengacu pada Addendum Surat Edaran ini dan peraturan perundang-undangan.

Beberapa ketentuan protokol tersebut berlaku untuk:

  1. Pelaku perjalanan transportasi udara;
  2. Pelaku perjalanan transportasi laut dan penyebrangan laut. Khusus perjalanan rutin untuk pelayaran terbatas dalam satu wilayah aglomerasi perkotaan tidak diwajibkan namun akan dilakukan tes acak apabila diperlukan oleh Satgas Penanganan Covid19 Daerah;
  3. Pelaku perjalanan kereta api antarkota;
  4. Pelaku perjalanan transportasi umum darat, dan akan dilakukan tes acak rapid test antigen/tes GeNose C19 apabila diperlukan;
  5. Pelaku perjalanan transportasi darat pribadi, dan akan dilakukan tes acak rapid test antigen/tes GeNose C19 apabila diperlukan;

Pengecualian larangan mudik

berlaku pada kendaraan pelayanan distribusi logistik dan pelaku perjalanan dengan keperluan mendesak untuk kepentingan non-mudik:

  • Bekerja atau perjalanan dinas;
  • Kunjungan keluarga sakit;
  • Kunjungan keluarga duka anggota keluarga meninggal;
  • Ibu hamil yang didampingi oleh 1 orang anggota keluarga; atau
  • Kepentingan persalinan yang didampingi 2 orang.

 

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INDONESIA’S POSITIVE INVESTMENT LIST

INDONESIA’S POSITIVE INVESTMENT LIST

The Indonesian Government has finally issued the long-anticipated Positive Investment List through Presidential Regulation No. 10 of 2021 on Investment Business Fields (”Positive List”). The Positive Investment List is one of the 49 implementing regulations of Law No. 11 of 2020 on Job Creation (“Job Creation Law”) which is set to replace the previous Presidential Regulation No. 44 of 2016 concerning The List of Business Fields that are Closed and Business Fields that are Open with Conditions to Investment (“PR 44/2016”) In this writing we are highlighting the key changes to the previous PR 44/2016.

A. Business Fields Classification Under the Positive List

1. Business Fields that are Closed to Investment

Under the Positive List, all business fields are open to investment activities, except for (i) business fields that are declared closed for investments; or (ii) activities that can only be carried out by the central government.

Under the Job Creation Law there are only 6 business fields that are completely closed for investment, namely:

  1. narcotics cultivation and industry class I;
  2. all forms of gambling and/or casino activities;
  3. fishing of species of fish listed in Appendix I of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES);
  4. utilization or taking of coral and utilization or taking of corals from nature, that is used for construction material/lime/calcium, aquarium, and souvenirs/jewelry as well as living coral or dead coral (recently dead coral) of nature;
  5. chemical weapon manufacturing industry; and
  6. industries of Industrial chemicals and ozone-depleting substance;

 

2. Business Fields that are Open to Investment

     a. Priority Business Fields

To be defined as a “Priority Business”, the relevant business fields must meet the following criteria: (i) a national strategic program or project; (ii) capital intensive; (iii) labor-intensive; (iv) advance technology; (v) pioneer industry; (vi) export-oriented; and/or (vii) research, development, and innovation activities oriented.

Investors that are investing in priority business fields are eligible to receive:

(1) Fiscal Incentives, consisting of:

  • Tax Incentives (including tax allowance, tax holidays, or investment allowance).
  • Customs incentives in the form of exemption from import duty on imported machinery, goods, and material for industrial development and investment.

(2) Non-Fiscal incentives include the ease of obtaining business licenses, provision of supporting infrastructure, the guarantee of energy availability, the guarantee of material availability, immigration permits, employment permit, and other conveniences under the prevailing regulations.

      b. Business Fields Allocated for or which Require Partnership with Cooperatives and Micro, Small, and Medium Scale Enterprises (“UMKM”)

The allocated business fields or partnership with cooperatives and UMKM are the business sectors that are fully allocated for cooperatives and UMKM and business fields that requires Big Scale Enterprises to be in mandatory partnerships with cooperatives or UMKM.

Business fields that are allocated for cooperatives and UMKM are determined based on the following criteria:

  1. business activities that do not utilize technology or only use simple technology;
  2. business activities that have process specificities, are labor-intensive, and have a special and hereditary cultural heritage.
  3. the capital of the business activities does not exceed IDR 10,000,000,000 (ten billion Rupiah) excluding land and property.

Considering that the Positive List requires foreign investors to have Big Scale Business with an investment value of more than IDR 10,000,000,000 (ten billion Rupiah) excluding land and property, it is not possible for foreign investors to carry out business fields that are allocated for cooperatives and UMKM.  The Positive List, however, allows foreign investors to partner-up with cooperatives and UMKM as long as it covers the following criteria: (i) it must include business fields that are mostly occupied by cooperatives and UMKM; and/or (ii) it is a business sector that is purposely boosted to enter the larger supply chain.

      c. Business Fields that are open with certain requirements

There were 350 business fields that are open with certain requirements under PR 44/2016.  The Positive List reduced such number to only 46 business fields which makes many business fields no longer subject to certain maximum foreign ownership restrictions.   Business fields that are open with certain requirements are divided into 3 categories:

  1. investment requirements for domestic investors;
  2. investment requirements with the limitation for foreign investment; or
  3. investment requirements with special permits.

 

B. Minimum Investment Value for Foreign Investment under the Positive List

The Positive List requires foreign investors to only conduct business activities in a Big Scale Enterprise with a minimum investment value of more than IDR10,000,000,000 (ten billion Rupiah) excluding land and property for business premises. The exception for such requirement is given only to business entities that are domiciled in the Special Economic Areas (Kawasan Ekonomi Khusus or KEK) and the technology-based startup sector. The purpose of such an exception is to encourage the strengthening of the ecosystem of technology-based startups, which are not limited to funding aspects, infrastructure, mentor networks, transfer of technology, and market access.

C. Updated List of Business Fields that are Open with Certain Requirements

No. Business Field KBLI Positive List Previous Requirements under PR 44/2016
1. Publishing of newspaper magazines and newsletter (press) 58130 a.      Domestic capital: 100% for establishment;

b.      Foreign capital ownership: Maximum 49% (through the capital market) only for business expansion and development.

100% Domestic capital
2. Private Broadcasting Agency (Lembaga Penyiaran Swasta/LPS) 60102 a.      Domestic capital: 100% for establishment;

b.      Foreign capital ownership: Maximum 20% only for business expansion and development.

a.      Only for business expansion and development.

b.      Foreign capital ownership: Maximum 20%

3. Subscription Broadcasting Agency (Lembaga Penyiaran Berlangganan /LPB) 60202 a.      Domestic capital: 100% for establishment;

b.      Foreign capital ownership: Maximum 20% only for business expansion and development.

4. Radio community broadcasting agency 60102 a.      Domestic capital: 100% for establishment;

b.      Foreign capital ownership: Maximum 20% only for business expansion and development.

Reserved for Cooperative and UMKM
5. Television community broadcasting agency 60202 a.      Domestic capital: 100% for establishment;

b.      Foreign capital ownership: Maximum 20% only for business expansion and development.

6. Postal activities 53100 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49% Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
7. Domestic scheduled commercial air transportation 51101 a.      Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%;

b.      National capital must outnumber the entire foreign capital ownership.

a.      Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%;

b.      National capital must outnumber the entire foreign capital ownership.

8. Domestic non-scheduled commercial air transportation 51102 a.      Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%;

b.      National capital must outnumber the entire foreign capital ownership.

a.      Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%;

b.      National capital must outnumber the entire foreign capital ownership.

9. Air transportation activities 51109 a.      Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%;

b.      National capital must outnumber the entire foreign capital ownership.

a.      Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%;

b.      National capital must outnumber the entire foreign capital ownership.

10. Liner and tramper domestic sea transportation for passengers 50111 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49% Previous investment list only categorized Sea Transportation into 4, which are:

 

a.      Domestic Sea Transportation: Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%

b.      International Sea Transportation: Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%

c.       International Sea Transportation for Passengers (Excluding Cabotage): Maximum investment 70% for Investors from ASEAN Countries

d.      International Sea Transportation for Goods (Excluding Cabotage): Maximum investment 70% for Investors from ASEAN Countries.

 

11. Domestic sea transportation for tourism 50113 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
12. Pioneer sea transportation for passenger 50114 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
13. Liner and tramper domestic sea freight for goods 50131 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
14. Domestic sea transportation for special goods 50133 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
15. Pioneer domestic sea transportation for goods 50134 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
16. Public shipping domestic sea transportation 50135 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
17. Overseas liner and tramper sea freight for goods 50141 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
18. Overseas sea transportation for special goods 50142 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
19. Interprovincial general inland water transportation 50214 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49% Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
20. Interprovincial pioneering inland water transportation 50215 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49% Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
21. Interdistrict/intercity general inland water transportation 50216 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49% Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
22. Interdistrict/intercity pioneering inland water transportation 50217 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49% Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
23. Inner district/city general inland water transportation 50218 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49% Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
24. River and lake transportation for passengers with fixed and regular routes 50211 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49% Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
25. River and lake transportation for passengers with non-fixed and irregular routes 50212 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49% Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
26. River and lake transportation with non-fixed and irregular routes for tourism 50213 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49% Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
27. River and lake transportation for general goods and/or animals 50221 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49% Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
28. River and lake transportation for special goods 50222 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49% Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
29. River and lake transportation for hazardous goods 50223 Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49% Foreign capital ownership: maximum 49%
30. Main equipment industry 25200 Capital ownership based on approval from the Minister of Defense a.      100% domestic capital;

b.      Recommendation from the Ministry of Defense.

31. Industry of liquor containing alcohol* 11010 a.      For new investments, it currently can only be carried out in Bali, East Nusa Tenggara, North Sulawesi and Papua by paying attention to local culture and wisdom;

b.      Investment other than letter a, can be determined by the Head of Investment Coordinating Board based on the governor’s recommendation

Closed for Investment.
32. Industry of beverage containing alcohol: wine* 11020 a.      For new investments, it currently can only be carried out in Bali, East Nusa Tenggara, North Sulawesi and Papua by paying attention to local culture and wisdom;

b.      Investment other than letter a, can be determined by the Head of Investment Coordinating Board based on the governor’s recommendation

Closed for Investment.
33. Industry of beverage containing malt* 11031 a.      For new investments, it currently can only be carried out in Bali, East Nusa Tenggara, North Sulawesi and Papua by paying attention to local culture and wisdom;

b.      Investment other than letter a, can be determined by the Head of Investment Coordinating Board based on the governor’s recommendation

Closed for Investment.
34. Industry of traditional medical products for humans 21022 Domestic capital: 100% Domestic capital: 100%
35. Industry of wooden building products 16221 Domestic capital: 100% Required partnership with Cooperatives UMKM
36. Industry of coffee processing that has received geographical indication 10761 Domestic capital: 100% Previously not regulated
37. Industry of rendang 10750 Domestic capital: 100% Previously not regulated
38. Industry of vessels:

–          Pinisi;

–          Outrigger;

–          Wood with typical traditional design.

30111 Domestic capital: 100% Required partnership with Cooperatives UMKM
39. Industry of wood carving craft non mebeller: wood carving, reliefs, masks, sculptures, puppets 16293 Domestic capital: 100% Reserved for UMKM
40. Industry of traditional cosmetics 20232 Domestic capital: 100% Previously not regulated
41. Industry of raw materials on traditional medicine for humans 21021 Domestic capital: 100% Domestic capital: 100%
42. Industry of Batik:

–          Industry of written Batik;

–          Industry of stamp Batik;

–          The combination of written and stamp Batik Industry.

`13134 Domestic capital: 100% In the previous Investment List:

–          Industry of written Batik was reserved for Cooperatives and UMKM;

–          Industry of stamp Batik required partnership with Cooperatives and UMKM.

 

43. Industry of crackers, chips, Peyek and such (manufacturers and non manufacturers) 10794 Domestic capital: 100% Reserved for Cooperatives and UMKM
44. Retailer trade on liquor alcoholic beverages 47221 Distribution network and specially designated place. Require:

 

a.      Alcoholic Beverages Trading Business License (SIUP-MB);

b.      Distribution network and specially designated place.

45. Small retailer trade on liquor or alcoholic beverages 47826 Distribution network and specially designated place. a.      Alcoholic Beverages Trading Business License (SIUP-MB);

b.      Distribution network and specially designated place.

46. Activities of the travel bureau for umrah and Special Hajj 79122 Domestic capital: 100% and Muslim Previously not regulated.

*Update: On Tuesday, 2 March 2021, President Joko Widodo announced the revocation of the provision in the Positive Investment List regarding the opening of investment in the industry of liquor and beverages containing alcohol and malt, thus the industry of liquor and beverages containing alcohol and malt will be closed for investment.


FMB & Partners Law Firm assists clients with various legal issues that arise in operating business on a daily basis including providing legal advice, due diligence, and creating legal documentation. Contact us for e-commerce and technology company legal service and other legal services at admin@fmbpartner.com or click here to contact our Business Whatsapp (Admin FMB Partner Law Firm +62 815-1910-7778)

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LAW NO. 10 of 2020 ON STAMP DUTY

STATUS: REPLACED LAW NO. 13 of 1985 ON STAMP DUTY 

EFFECTIVE DATE: 01 JANUARY 2021

KEY CONTENTS:

  1. Objects of Stamp Duty:
    a. Documents created to explain matters of a civil nature:
    i. Agreements, certificates, statement letters, or any similar type of documents along with its copies;
    ii. Notarial deeds and Grosse, including copies and excerpts;
    iii. Deeds of the Land Deed Officer along with the copies;
    iv. Securities in any form and name;
    v. Securities transaction documents including for futures contract transactions in any name or form;
    vi. Auction documents in the form of excerpts, minutes, copies, and Grosse;
    vii. Documents stating an amount of money of IDR 5 million, which:
    – Describe the receipt of the money; or
    – Contain an acknowledgment of debt or debt repayment, either entirely or partially;
    viii. Other documents stipulated by government regulations.

b. Documents to be used as evidence in court.

2. Stamp Duty Rate

Stamp Duty is imposed 1 (one) time with a fixed rate of IDR10,000 (approximately USD0.6) for each document. This rate could be lowered or increased through government regulation based on the conditions of the national economy.

3. Stamp Duty Fee Payer

Document TypePayer
Documents made unilaterallyThe party receiving the document
Documents made by two or more partiesEach party bears the stamp duty for the counterpart of the document it receives
SecuritiesThe party issuing the securities
Documents submitted as evidence before a courtThe party presenting the evidence
Documents entered into abroad and used in IndonesiaThe party benefiting from the document

4. The Event of Due and Payable

Document TypeStamp Duty Payable When
Agreements, certificates, statement letters, or any similar type of documentsThe document is signed.  
Notarial deeds and grosse, including copies and excerptsThe document is signed.  
Deeds of the Land Deed OfficeThe document is signed.  
Securities and securities transaction documentsThe document is made.
Auction documents in the form of excerpts, minutes, copies and grosseThe document is handed over to the party for whom the document is made.  
Documents confirming: (i) the receipt of money or (ii) an acknowledgment of debt or debt repaymentThe document is handed over to the party for whom the document is made.
Documents submitted as evidence before a courtThe document is presented.
Documents entered into abroad and used in IndonesiaThe document is used in Indonesia  

5. Stamp Duty Exemption Facility

Law No. 10 of 2020 on Stamp Duty introduces Stamp Duty Exemption Facilities For:

  • Documents on the transfer of Land and Building rights within a framework of accelerating the process of handling and restoring social conditions due to natural disasters;
  • Documents on the transfer of Land and Building rights solely for religious or non-commercial activities;
  • Documents on the implementation of Government programs and monetary or financial policies; and/or
  • Documents related to the implementation of International Agreements under binding international treaties or reciprocal laws.

6. Transitional Provisions

Duty Stamp on dutiable documents made prior to 1 January 2021 can still continue to follow previous Stamp Duty regulation (Law No. 13 of 1985).

Stamp Duty printed based on previous Stamp Duty regulation (Law No. 13 of 1985) can still be used for a year after the effective date of Law No. 10 of 2020 on Stamp Duty (1 January 2022) by affixing multiple stamps with a total value of minimum IDR9,000.

Ways of using Stamp Duty printed based on Law No. 13 of 1985

Picture Source: Pos Indonesia


FMB & Partners Law Firm assists clients with various legal issues that arise in operating business on a daily basis including providing legal advice, due diligence, and creating legal documentation. Contact us for e-commerce and technology company legal service and other legal services at +62 21 5082 0033 or mail admin@fmbpartner.com

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Peraturan Bank Indonesia No. 22/23/PBI/2020 Tentang Sistem Pembayaran

Bank Indonesia (BI) melalui kebijakan terbarunya telah melakukan reformasi pengaturan sistem pembayaran melalui penerbitan Peraturan Bank Indonesia (PBI) No.22/23/PBI/2020 tentang Sistem Pembayaran (PBI Sistem Pembayaran). 

Menurut Kepala Departemen Kebijakan Sistem Pembayaran BI Filianingsih Hendarta, kebijakan ini dapat dibilang menjadi payung ketentuan yang mengakomodir struktur industri sistem pembayaran di dalam negeri. 

Unduh versi PDF nya di sini.

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Pelaksanaan RUPS secara elektronik bagi Perusahaan Terbuka

Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK) mengeluarkan Peraturan Nomor 16/POJK.04/2020 tentang Pelaksanaan Rapat Umum Pemegang Saham Perusahaan Terbuka Secara Elektronik (“POJK 16/2020”).

POJK 16/2020 mengatur proses pengambilan keputusan bisnis korporasi yang cepat dan tepat dalam penyelenggaraan RUPS Perusahaan Terbuka melalui media telekonferensi, video konferensi, atau sarana media elektronik lainnya. Perusahaan Terbuka dimungkinkan untuk menyelenggarakan RUPS secara elektronik, sehingga pelaksanaan RUPS dapat dilaksanakan dengan efektif dan efisien.

Pokok Pengaturan POJK 16/2020

1. Pelaksanaan RUPS secara elektronik merupakan alternatif pelaksanaan RUPS selain dilakukan secara fisik.
2. Pelaksanaan RUPS secara elektronik dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan:

a. e-RUPS yang disediakan oleh Penyedia e-RUPS; atau
b. sistem yang disediakan oleh Perusahaan Terbuka.

3. Penyedia e-RUPS:

a. Lembaga Penyimpanan dan Penyelesaian yang ditunjuk OJK; atau
b. Pihak lain yang disetujui OJK.

4. Kewajiban Penyedia e-RUPS:

a. Terdaftar sebagai penyelenggara sistem elektronik
b. Menyediakan hak akses kepada Pengguna e-RUPS untuk dapat mengakses RUPS
c. Memiliki dan menetapkan prosedur operasional standar pelaksanaan RUPS secara elektronik melalui e-RUPS yang paling sedikit mencakup:

i. persyaratan dan tata cara pendaftaran dan/atau pemberian hak akses kepada Pengguna e-RUPS, termasuk pembatalan pendaftaran Pengguna e-RUPS;
ii. biaya pendaftaran dan/atau penggunaan e-RUPS;
iii. tata cara penggunaan e-RUPS;
iv. hak dan kewajiban Pengguna e-RUPS;
v. batasan akses penggunaan e-RUPS;
vi. kerahasiaan, keutuhan, dan ketersediaan informasi pelaksanaan RUPS yang terdapat pada e-RUPS;
vii. mekanisme pelaporan dan pengambilan data dalam rangka pemenuhan kewajiban pelaporan Perusahaan Terbuka;
viii. perlindungan data pribadi sesuai dengan ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan; dan
ix. penghentian sementara waktu pemberian layanan kepada Pengguna e-RUPS.

d. Memastikan terlaksananya RUPS secara elektronik
e. Memastikan keamanan dan keandalan e-RUPS
f. Menginformasikan kepada Pengguna e-RUPS dalam hal terdapat perubahan atau pengembangan sistem termasuk penambahan layanan dan fitur e-RUPS
g. menyediakan rekam jejak audit terhadap seluruh kegiatan pemrosesan data di e-RUPS untuk keperluan pengawasan, penegakan hukum, penyelesaian sengketa, verifikasi, dan pengujian
h. memiliki dan menempatkan fasilitas pengganti pusat data dan pusat pemulihan bencana terkait penyelenggaraan e-RUPS di wilayah Indonesia pada tempat yang aman dan terpisah dari pusat data utama
i. memenuhi standar minimum sistem teknologi informasi, pengamanan teknologi informasi, gangguan dan kegagalan sistem, serta alih Kelola sistem teknologi informasi
j. menyimpan semua data pelaksanaan RUPS secara elektronik; dan
k. bertanggung jawab atas kerugian yang ditimbulkan karena kesalahan atau kelalaiannya dalam penyediaan dan pengelolaan e-RUPS

5. e-RUPS atau sistem yang disediakan oleh Perusahaan Terbuka memungkinkan semua peserta RUPS berpartisipasi dan berinteraksi dalam RUPS. Bentuk partisipasi dan interaksi tersebut dapat dilakukan melalui sarana audio, visual, audio visual, atau selain audio dan visual.

6. Teknis Pelaksanaan RUPS Secara Elektronik:

a. Tetap mewajibkan RUPS fisik secara terbatas (minimal pimpinan RUPS, 1 anggota direksi dan/atau 1 anggota dewan komisaris, dan profesi penunjang).
b. Pemegang saham diberikan kesempatan untuk hadir secara fisik, sepanjang Perusahaan Terbuka menyediakan kuota tertentu (tidak untuk seluruh pemegang saham).
c. Kehadiran pemegang saham secara elektronik dalam RUPS secara elektronik dapat menggantikan kehadiran pemegang saham secara fisik dan dihitung sebagai pemenuhan kuorum kehadiran.
d. Dalam kondisi tertentu, Perusahaan Terbuka dapat tidak melaksanakan RUPS secara fisik atau melakukan pembatasan kehadiran pemegang saham secara fisik baik sebagian maupun seluruhnya dalam pelaksanaan RUPS secara elektronik.
e. Kondisi tertentu tersebut ditetapkan oleh Pemerintah atau dengan persetujuan Otoritas Jasa Keuangan.
f. Pemberian suara dapat dilakukan setelah pemanggilan sampai dengan pembukaan masing-masing mata acara.
g. Pemegang saham yang telah memberikan suara secara elektronik sebelum RUPS dilaksanakan dianggap sah menghadiri RUPS.
h. Risalah RUPS secara elektronik wajib dibuat dalam bentuk akta notariil oleh notaris yang terdaftar di OJK tanpa memerlukan tanda tangan dari para peserta RUPS.

7. Kegiatan RUPS Elektronik: RUPS dilaksanakan secara berurutan dengan efisien, yang harus memuat kegiatan paling sedikit:

a. pembukaan;
b. penetapan kuorum kehadiran;
c. pembahasan pertanyaan atau pendapat yang diajukan oleh pemegang saham atau kuasa pemegang saham yang diajukan secara elektronik pada setiap mata acara;
d. penetapan keputusan setiap mata acara berdasarkan kuorum pengambilan keputusan; dan
e. penutupan.

Sumber: POJK 16/2020, Otoritas Jasa Keuangan.

FMB & Partners Law Firm dapat membantu Anda dalam praktek hukum dan legal due diligence yang komprehensif pun membantu keperluan hukum serta legalitas mergers and acquisition bisnis Anda. Contact us for info and other legal practice at +62 21 5082 0033 or mail to mey@fmbpartner.com

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Force Majeure and Rebus Sic Stantibus Doctrine in times of Covid-19 Pandemic

Untuk versi berbahasa Indonesia klik di sini.

Through Presidential Decree (KEPPRES) No. 12/2020 concerning the Establishment of Corona Virus Disease (Covid-19) as Non-Natural Disaster, signed by President Joko Widodo on April 13, 2020, Covid-19 has just been declared as a ‘national disaster’. However, confusion has been raised over the legal consequences of the KEPPRES.

The most potential legal consequence that has been widely discussed in local media is whether the KEPPRES allows companies and business owners to claim Force Majeure? In which case, they are released from the obligations caused by the sudden arrival of an extraordinary event, which goes far beyond the control of the parties involved.

In this article, we will discuss Force Majeure and Rebus Sic Stantibus doctrine and their relation to this time of the Covid-19 Pandemic.

Can the Covid-19 Pandemic be qualified as Force Majeure?

Etymologically Force Majeure originated from French which literally translates as “greater force”, and “keadaan memaksa” or “keadaan kahar” in Bahasa Indonesia.

The Indonesian Civil Code (ICC) does not provide a definition of Force Majeure, but Article 1244 and 1245 stipulate general provisions of Force Majeure which principally exempt debtors from all costs, losses, and interest as long as the debtor can prove the occurrence of Force Majeure event. In Article 1244 it is explained that:

“In the case of there is a reason the debtor must be sentenced to compensate the costs, losses, and interest, if the party unable to prove, that the non-fulfillment or delay of the fulfillment of an obligation on time in accordance with the agreement, due to an unexpected event, in which such event could not be accounted upon the party, all of the aforementioned only if there is no malice intent of the party.”

Furthermore, in Article 1245:

“Any cost, loss, and interest shall not be compensated if due to a forceful condition (overmacht) or due to an unintentional situation, the debtor is unable to provide or perform something that is required, or due to the aforementioned the debtor has done prohibited acts.”

Therefore, an event is considered to be Force Majeure if it meets the following elements:

1. the performance of the agreement is not possible due to unforeseen circumstance;
2. the circumstance occurs beyond the fault of the debtor;
3. the debtor is not accountable for the circumstance.

The Force Majeure concept that applies in Indonesia, there are 2 theories of Force Majeure:

1. Absolute Force Majeure
When it is impossible for the debtor to perform its obligations, for example, because the object of agreement is destroyed or no longer exists.

2. Relative Force Majeure
When it is still possible for the debtor to perform its obligations but at very great sacrifice.

The distinction between absolute and relative Force Majeure lies in the degree of impossibility. If the impossibility is absolute, it is no longer open to the possibility of change, then it becomes a forceful situation for the birth of an absolute Force Majeure. This impossibility does not only apply to the debtor itself, but also the impossibility of anyone under these conditions.

If the impossibility is still open to possibility, despite the great sacrifice, then this is a relative Force Majeure. If this obstacle disappears or subsides someday, it is still possible that the previous non-performance is requested again to be fulfilled by the debtor, but this time the creditor is not permitted to file for compensation of costs, losses, and interest.

By looking at the Force Majeure elements, the Covid-19 outbreak can be categorized as a Force Majeure because the Covid-19 situation itself is an unexpected event that is beyond human control, the condition cannot be avoided and is not caused by the error/negligence of the parties.

Covid-19 Pandemic as Force Majeure Event

After the release of KEPPRES No. 12/2020, the establishment of the Covid-19 outbreak as a national disaster by the government can be qualified as Force Majeure but does not necessarily serve as a basis for obstruction of the performance of all types of agreements. Force Majeure must still be seen from the real conditions of obstacles that cause non-fulfillment of obligations in the agreement.

In the agreement, the parties generally agree on the limitations of Force Majeure events, if an agreement explicitly states that outbreaks or lockdowns are Force Majeure events, then Covid-19 Pandemic and lockdown by the government can be categorized as Force Majeure event.

If the agreement does not explicitly mention an outbreak or lockdown as a Force Majeure event, but there is a phrase “including but not limited” or a clause stating “other events beyond the ability of the debtor” and the like which in a manner explicitly or implicitly stated in the agreement, then the performance of the agreement must be put into account if the Covid-19 situation is really compelling so that the debtor cannot perform its obligations.

If the performance of the agreement is an obligation to pay debts, then an outbreak or lockdown cannot abort the debt payment obligation, because such obligations can still be fulfilled by transferring through ATM, mobile or online banking. If the performance of the agreement is in the form of an obligation to do something that cannot be replaced by someone else, for example singing in a concert, the singer can be exempted from carrying out the obligations as promised on the grounds of the disease outbreak.

Rebus Sic Stantibus doctrine

Rebus Sic Stantibus or complete doctrine is “Omnis convention intellegitur rebus sic stantibus”. Literally means that an agreement is valid if the conditions are still the same as when the agreement was made. This means that if conditions change, the agreement will no longer be valid.

Rebus Sic Stantibus is regulated in The UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts (UPICC), based on Article 6.2.2, the elements are:

1. the occurrence of events fundamentally alters the equilibrium of the contract either because the cost of a party’s performance has increased or because the value of the performance a party receives has diminished
2. the events occur or become known to the disadvantaged party after the conclusion of the contract
3. the events could not reasonably have been taken into account by the disadvantaged party at the time of the conclusion of the contract
4. the events are beyond the control of the disadvantaged party
5. the risk of the events was not assumed by the disadvantaged party

Rebus Sic Stantibus practice during the Covid-19 Pandemic

The embodiment of the Rebus Sic Stantibus principle in Indonesian positive law, so far only regulated in article 18 of Law No. 24 of 2000 concerning International Treaties which state that “international treaties end if there are fundamental changes that affect the implementation of the agreement”. In Indonesia, as a country that implements legal security, it implements absolute Pacta Sunt Servanda with only exclusion if there’s an impossibility to fulfill the performance of an agreement. Thus, Rebus Sic Stantibus is not recognized by the ICC.

Like the case of Force Majeure, if in the agreement explicitly stated elements or criteria of Rebus Sic Stantibus, then the provision binds the parties as to the law. As a result, Rebus Sic Stantibus provides the disadvantaged party the right to demand renegotiation of the agreement. However, if it is not stated in the agreement, then laws and propriety shall prevail.

Similarities and differences between Force Majeure and Rebus Sic Stantibus/Hardship

On the similarity, Force Majeure and Rebus Sic Stantibus both are unforeseen and unexpected events to occur when the agreement is agreed upon, they occur beyond the debtor’s errors and risks.

With Force Majeure, the debtor is excused from performing its obligations due to an unforeseen circumstance, which if It’s forced to continue performing its obligations, then it will face severe conditions due to physical and law obstructions. Thus, the obstruction on Force Majeure must not be due to economic reasons. Physical obstruction, for example in the form of natural disasters, that cause the transportation routes disrupted and goods cannot be delivered on time. While law obstruction meant, for example, occurs because of a sudden amendment of regulation that is related and is the basis of the contract. Say for instance, at first the object of the agreement is legal to be traded, but then declared illegal by such regulation.

Force Majeure essentially does not make economic difficulties as an excuse, for example because debtors are in debt or even bankrupt.

However, the Rebus Sic Stantibus principle allows economic constraints to be used as a basis of non-performance. This reason is acceptable, for example, the debtor cannot fulfill the performance of the contract due to the contents of the agreement itself is already burdensome economically with a very heavy interest expense.

The establishment of the Covid-19 outbreak as a national disaster by the government may be qualified as Force Majeure but it cannot automatically be used as a basis for the inability of a party to fulfill its obligations. It is necessary to prove that the inability of a party to perform its obligations is directly caused by the Covid-19 Pandemic.

As for the Agreement made prior to the Covid-19 Pandemic, if there’s clause stipulates that an outbreak (Pandemic Covid-19) and closure of access by the government (lockdown) as Force Majeure, the Covid-19 Pandemic can be used as the basis for the inability of a party to perform its obligations. Similarly, if in the agreement explicitly stated elements or criteria of Rebus Sic Stantibus, then the provision binds the parties as to the law. As a result, Rebus Sic Stantibus provides the disadvantaged party the right to demand renegotiation of the agreement. However, if it is not stated in the agreement, then laws and propriety shall prevail.

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Force Majeure dan doktrin Rebus Sic Stantibus dalam Bencana Covid-19

For English version click here.

Melalui Keputusan Presiden (KEPPRES) No. 12/2020 tentang Penetapan Corona Virus Disease (Covid-19) sebagai Bencana Nonalam, yang ditandatangani oleh Presiden Widodo pada 13 April 2020, Covid-19 baru dinyatakan sebagai ‘bencana nasional’. Namun muncul kebingungan tentang konsekuensi hukum atas KEPPRES tersebut.

Konsekuensi hukum yang paling berpotensi yang sudah banyak didiskusikan di media local adalah apakah KEPPRES tersebut memungkinkan perusahaan dan pengusaha untuk mengklaim Force Majeure? Yang mana dengan demikian, mereka dibebaskan dari kewajiban yang disebabkan kedatangan mendadak peristiwa luar biasa, yang jauh melampaui kontrol pihak terlibat.

Dalam tulisan ini, kami akan membahas bagaimana situasi Force Majeure dalam bencana Covid-19 dan kaitannya dengan doktrin Rebus Sic Stantibus.

Apakah Pandemi COVID-19 dapat dikualifikasikan sebagai Force Majeure?

Secara etimologis Force Majeure berasal dari Bahasa Perancis yang berarti “kekuatan yang lebih besar”, dan “keadaan memaksa” atau “keadaan kahar” dalam Bahasa Indonesia.

Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Perdata (“KUHPerdata”) tidak memberikan definisi Force Majeure, namun dalam Pasal 1244 dan 1245 tertuang ketentuan umum Force Majeure yang pada intinya membebaskan debitur dari segala biaya, rugi dan bunga sepanjang debitur dapat membuktikan adanya Force Majeure. Dalam Pasal 1244 dijelaskan bahwa:

Debitur harus dihukum untuk mengganti biaya, kerugian dan bunga bila ia tak dapat membuktikan bahwa tidak dilaksanakannya perikatan itu atau tidak tepatnya waktu dalam melaksanakan perikatan itu disebabkan oleh sesuatu hal yang tak terduga, yang tak dapat dipertanggungkan kepadanya walaupun tidak ada itikad buruk kepadanya.

Selanjutnya dalam Pasal 1245:

Tidak ada penggantian biaya, kerugian dan bunga bila karena keadaan memaksa atau karena hal yang terjadi secara kebetulan, debitur terhalang untuk memberikan atau berbuat sesuatu yang diwajibkan, atau melakukan suatu perbuatan yang terlarang baginya.

Sehingga suatu keadaan dikatakan sebagai Force Majeure apabila memenuhi unsur-unsur berikut:

  1. Prestasi tidak dapat terlaksana disebabkan oleh kejadian tidak terduga;
  2. Sebab tersebut terjadi diluar dari kesalahan debitur;
  3. Tidak dapat dipertanggungjawabkan kepada debitur.

Dalam konsep Force Majeure yang berlaku di Indonesia, terdapat 2 jenis yang tebagi atas:

  1. Force Majeure Absolut

Apabila debitur sama sekali tidak mungkin lagi melaksanakan kewajibannya, misalnya karena barang yang diperjanjikan sudah musnah.

  1. Force Majeure Relatif

Apabila debitur masih mungkin melaksanakan, tetapi dengan pengorbanan yang sangat besar.

Pembedaan Force Majeure mutlak dan absolut ini terletak pada derajat ketidakmungkinan (imposibilitas). Jika ketidakmungkinannya sudah mutlak, tak lagi terbuka kemungkinan berubah, maka ia menjadi keadaan memaksa untuk lahirnya Force Majeure mutlak. Ketidakmungkinan ini tidak hanya berlaku untuk diri si debitur, melainkan ketidakmungkinan bagi siapapun di dalam kondisi demikian. [1]

Jika ketidakmungkinannya masih terbuka untuk jadi mungkin, kendati dengan pengorbanan yang besar, maka ini adalah Force Majeure relatif. Seandainya kendala ini suatu waktu menghilang atau mereda, masih dimungkinkan prestasi yang semula tidak dilaksanakan itu untuk dimintakan lagi agar dipenuhi oleh si debitur, namun kali ini kreditur tidak diperkenankan mengajukan pergantian biaya, kerugian, dan bunga.[2]

Dengan melihat unsur-unsur Force Majeure, penyebaran wabah Covid-19 dapat dikategorikan sebagai Force Majeure karena situasi Covid-19 ini sendiri merupakan kejadian yang tidak terduga yang berada di luar kekuasaan manusia, kondisi tersebut tidak dapat dihindari dan bukan disebabkan oleh kesalahan/kelalaian para pihak.

Pandemi Covid-19 sebagai alasan Force Majeure

Setelah dirilisnya KEPPRES No. 12/2020, penetapan wabah Covid-19 sebagai bencana nasional oleh pemerintah dapat dikualifikasikan sebagai Force Majeure, namun tidak serta merta dapat dijadikan dasar terhalangnya pemenuhan prestasi semua jenis perjanjian, Force Majeure tetap harus dilihat dari kondisi nyata halangan yang menyebabkan tidak terlaksanakannya kewajiban dalam perjanjian.

Dalam perjanjian, umumnya para pihak menyepakati batasan-batasan peristiwa Force Majeure, apabila suatu perjanjian secara tegas menyatakan bahwa wabah penyakit (outbreak) atau penutupan akses (lockdown) sebagai peristiwa Force Majeure, maka Pandemi Covid-19 dan lockdown oleh pemerintah dapat dijadikan sebagai alasan Force Majeure.

Apabila dalam perjanjian tidak secara tegas disebutkan wabah penyakit (outbreak) atau penutupan akses (lockdown) sebagai peristiwa Force Majeure, namun terdapat frasa “termasuk tetapi tidak terbatas” atau klausula yang menyatakan “kejadian-kejadian lain di luar kemampuan debitur” atau sejenisnya yang secara tegas maupun tidak tegas dinyatakan dalam perjanjian, maka harus diperhatikan prestasi perjanjian tersebut.[3] Apakah situasi Covid-19 benar-benar memaksa sehingga debitur tidak dapat melaksanakan kewajibannya.

Apabila prestasinya merupakan kewajiban membayar utang, maka wabah penyakit (outbreak) atau penutupan akses oleh Pemerintah (lockdown) tidak dapat menggugurkan kewajiban pembayaran utang tersebut, dikarenakan kewajiban tersebut masih dapat dipenuhi dengan melakukan transfer melalui ATM, mobile atau online banking. Jika prestasinya berupa kewajiban melakukan sesuatu yang tidak dapat digantikan dengan orang lain, misal menyanyi dalam suatu konser, penyanyi tersebut dapat dibebaskan dari pelaksanaan kewajiban sebagaimana dijanjikan dengan alasan wabah penyakit.[4]

Doktrin Rebus Sic Stantibus

Rebus Sic Stantibus, atau lengkapnya disebut “omnis convention intellegitur rebus sic stantibus”. Secara harfiah bermakna bahwa suatu perjanjian sah berlaku jika kondisinya masih sama seperti saat perjanjian itu dibuat. Artinya, jika memang kondisinya berubah, perjanjian itu menjadi tidak lagi sah.[5]

Rebus Sic Stantibus diatur dalam The UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts (UPICC), berdasarkan Pasal 6.2.2 adapun unsur-unsurnya:

  1. Adanya peristiwa yang secara fundamental mengubah keseimbangan. Hal ini dapat berupa naiknya biaya pelaksanaan kontrak atau menurunnya nilai pelaksanaan kontrak yang diterima oleh salah satu pihak.
  2. Peristiwanya terjadi atau baru diketahui oleh pihak yang dirugikan setelah perjanjian disepakati.
  3. Peristiwanya secara rasional tidak diprediksi pada saat perjanjian disepakati.
  4. Peristiwanya diluar kontrol pihak yang dirugikan.
  5. Resiko dari peristiwa yang terjadi tidak diduga oleh pihak yang dirugikan

Penerapan Rebus Sic Stantibus pada masa Pandemi Covid-19

Perwujudan asas Rebus Sic Stantibus dalam hukum positif di Indonesia, sejauh ini hanya diatur dalam pasal 18 Undang-undang No. 24 Tahun 2000 tentang perjanjian internasional yang menyatakan bahwa “perjanjian internasional berakhir apabila terdapat perubahan mendasar yang mempengaruhi pelaksanaan perjanjian”. Di Indonesia yang menerapkan kepastian hukum, maka menggunakan prinsip Pacta Sunt Servanda secara mutlak dan hanya dikecualikan pelaksanaan prestasinya menjadi tidak mungkin. Sehingga, Rebus Sic Stantibus tidak dikenal dalam KUH Perdata di Indonesia.[6]

Seperti hal nya Force Majeure, apabila di dalam perjanjian telah dinyatakan secara tegas unsur-unsur atau kriteria Rebus Sic Stantibus, maka ketentuan itu mengikat para pihak sebagai undang-undang. Akibatnya, Rebus Sic Stantibus memberikan hak kepada pihak yang dirugikan untuk menuntut renegosiasi perjanjian. Namun jika tidak dinyatakan dalam perjanjian tersebut, maka berlaku ketentuan undang-undang serta kepatutan.

Persamaan dan perbedaan Force Majeure dan Rebus Sic Stantibus/Hardship

Pada persamaannya baik Force Majeure dan Rebus Sic Stantibus keduanya merupakan peristiwa yang tidak diduga dan diharapkan terjadi pada saat perjanjian disepakati, hal tersebut terjadi diluar kesalahan dan resiko debitur.

Pada Force Majeure, debitur diberi dispensasi untuk tidak melaksanakan kewajibannya karena suatu keadaan yang tak terduga sebelumnya, yang apabila ia dipaksa untuk tetap melaksanakan kewajibannya, maka ia akan menghadapi kondisi yang berat akibat terkendala secara fisik dan hukum. Sehingga pada Force Majeure kendalanya harus bukan karena alasan ekonomi. Kendala fisik di sini misalnya berupa bencana alam, sehingga jalur transportasi terganggu dan barang tidak dapat diantar tepat waktu. Sementara yang dimaksud dengan kendala hukum, misalnya terjadi karena perubahan mendadak suatu peraturan yang sangat berkaitan dan menjadi dasar terkait isi kontrak.[7]

Katakanlah, dulu objek perjanjian adalah legal untuk diperjualbelikan, tetapi kemudian dinyatakan terlarang. Force Majeure, esensinya, tidak menjadikan kesulitan ekonomi sebagai alasan, misalnya karena debitur mengalami terlilit hutang atau bahkan pailit.[8]

Asas Rebus Sic Stantibus membolehkan alasan-alasan kendala ekonomi digunakan sebagai dasar untuk menghindar dari kewajiban kontrak. Alasan ini bisa diterima, misalnya, karena debitur tidak dapat melaksanakan kontrak akibat isi perjanjian itu sendiri sudah memberatkannya secara ekonomis dengan beban bunga yang sangat berat.[9]

Penetapan wabah Covid-19 sebagai bencana nasional oleh pemerintah dapat dikualifikasikan sebagai Force Majeure, namun tidak secara otomatis dapat dijadikan dasar ketidakmampuan suatu pihak memenuhi kewajibannya. Harus ada pembuktian bahwa ketidakmampuan suatu pihak menjalankan kewajibannya tersebut secara langsung disebabkan oleh Pandemi Covid-19.

Terhadap Perjanjian yang dibuat sebelum terjadinya Pandemi Covid-19, apabila telah tertuang klausula yang menyatakan bahwa wabah penyakit (Pandemi Covid-19) dan penutupan akses oleh pemerintah (lockdown) sebagai Force Majeure, maka Pandemi Covid-19 dapat dijadikan dasar ketidakmampuan suatu pihak melaksanakan kewajibannya. Demikian pula dengan klausula Rebus Sic Stantibus, apabila di dalam perjanjian telah dinyatakan secara tegas unsur-unsur atau kriteria Rebus Sic Stantibus, maka berlakulah ketentuan tersebut sebagai undang-undang bagi para pihak. Bagi pihak yang dirugikan dapat menuntut renegosiasi perjanjian. Namun jika tidak dinyatakan dalam perjanjian tersebut, maka berlaku ketentuan undang-undang serta kepatutan.

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[1] Shidarta, “Force Majeure dan Clausula Rebus Sic Stantibus”, tersedia di: https://business-law.binus.ac.id/2020/04/24/force-majeure-dan-clausula-rebus-sic-stantibus/ (24 April 2020)

[2] Ibid.

[3] Tri Harnowo, “Wabah Corona sebagai Alasan Force Majeur dalam Perjanjian”, tersedia di: https://www.hukumonline.com/klinik/detail/ulasan/lt5e81ae9a6fc45/wabah-corona-sebagai-alasan-iforce-majeur-i-dalam-perjanjian/ (30 Maret 2020)

[4]Ibid.

[5] Shidarta, “Force Majeure dan Clausula Rebus Sic Stantibus”, tersedia di: https://business-law.binus.ac.id/2020/04/24/force-majeure-dan-clausula-rebus-sic-stantibus/ (24 April 2020), mengutip Aziz T Saliba, Rebus sic stantibus: A Comparative Survey, (Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, 2001)

[6] Akhmad Budi Cahyono, dalam “Talkshow memperingati hari Kartini dengan tema: Dapatkah Force Majeure dan Asas Rebus Sic Stantibus Diterapkan dalam Bencana Covid-19?” yang diselenggarakan pada tanggal 22 April 2020.

[7] Opcit.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid.

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5 Peraturan OJK Menangani Situasi Pandemi COVID-19

Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK) mengeluarkan kebijakan mulai dari restrukturisasi pembiayaan bagi debitur hingga mengenai mekanisme RUPS Perusahaan Terbuka secara elektronik.

Guna menahan efek lanjut pandemik Covid-19 dan membantu pergerakan roda perekonomian nasional, serta merupakan tindak lanjut atas terbitnya Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang Nomor 1/2020 tentang Kebijakan Keuangan Negara dan Stabilitas Sistem Keuangan untuk Penanganan Pandemi Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) dan/atau Dalam Rangka Menghadapi Ancaman yang Membahayakan Perekonomian Nasional dan/atau Stabilitas Sistem Keuangan, OJK menetapkan 5 Peraturan OJK (POJK):

1. POJK No. 14/POJK.05/2020 Tentang Kebijakan Countercyclical Dampak Penyebaran Coronavirus Disease 2019 Bagi Lembaga Jasa Keuangan Non-Bank

Aturan ini memuat perihal pemberian restrukturisasi pembiayaan bagi debitur yang terdampak COVID-19, dengan berbagai ketentuan:

    1. Batas waktu penyampaian laporan berkala;
    2. Pelaksanaan penilaian kemampuan dan kepatutan;
    3. Penetapan kualitas aset berupa Pembiayaan dan Restrukturisasi Pembiayaan;
    4. Perhitungan tingkat solvabilitas perusahaan asuransi, perusahaan asuransi syariah, perusahaan reasuransi, dan perusahaan reasuransi syariah;
    5. Perhitungan kualitas pendanaan dana pensiun yang menyelenggarakan program pensiun manfaat pasti; dan
    6. Pelaksanaan ketentuan pengelolaan aset sesuai kelompok peserta (life cycle fund) bagi dana pensiun yang menyelenggarakan program pensiun iuran pasti.

2. POJK No 15/POJK.04/2020 Tentang Rencana dan Penyelenggaraan Rapat Umum Pemegang Saham Perusahaan Terbuka

POJK yang dikeluarkan sebagai perubahan atas POJK No.32/POJK.04/2014 ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan partisipasi pemegang saham dalam RUPS Perusahaan Terbuka, khususnya dalam pembentukan kuorum kehadiran. Pemegang saham dapat melakukan pemberian kuasa secara elektronik kepada pihak ketiga untuk mewakilinya hadir dan memberikan suara dalam RUPS.

POJK tersebut mengatur mengenai:

    1. Ketentuan mengenai pemberitahuan mata acara, pengumuman, dan pemanggilan RUPS;
    2. Kewajiban Perusahaan Terbuka untuk menyediakan alternatif pemberian kuasa secara elektronik bagi pemegang saham untuk hadir dan memberikan suara dalam RUPS;
    3. Pemberian kuasa secara elektronik dilakukan melalui Sistem Penyelenggaraan RUPS Secara Elektronik (e-RUPS) yang disediakan oleh Penyedia e-RUPS atau sistem yang disediakan oleh Perusahaan Terbuka;
    4. Pihak yang dapat menerima kuasa secara elektronik meliputi:
      1. Partisipan yang mengadministrasikan sub rekening efek/efek milik pemegang saham
      2. Pihak yang disediakan oleh Perusahaan Terbuka, atau
      3. Pihak yang ditunjuk oleh pemegang saham
    5. Kegiatan Penyedia e-RUPS hanya dapat dilakukan oleh Lembaga Penyimpanan dan Penyelesaian yang ditunjuk oleh OJK atau Pihak lain yang disetujui OJK.

3. POJK No. 16/POJK.04/2020 Tentang Pelaksanaan RUPS Terbuka Secara Elektronik

Perusahaan Terbuka dimungkinkan untuk menyelenggarakan RUPS secara elektronik, dengan ketentuan sebagai berikut:

    1. Tetap mewajibkan RUPS fisik secara terbatas (minimal pimpinan RUPS, 1 anggota direksi dan/atau 1 anggota dewan komisaris, dan profesi penunjang)
    2. Pemegang saham diberikan kesempatan untuk hadir secara fisik sepanjang Perusahaan Terbuka menyediakan kuota tertentu.
    3. Kehadiran pemegang saham secara elektronik dalam RUPS secara elektronik dapat menggantikan kehadiran pemegang saham secara fisik dan dianggap memenuhi kuorum
    4. Dalam keadaan tertentu, RUPS fisik dapat tidak dilaksanakan atau melakukan pembatasan kehadiran pemegang saham secara fisik baik sebagian maupun seluruhnya dalam pelaksanaan RUPS secara elektronik
    5. Kondisi tertentu tersebut ditetapkan oleh Pemerintah atas persetujuan OJK.

4. POJK No 17/POJK.04/2020 Tentang Transaksi Material dan Perubahan Kegiatan Usaha

Peraturan ini ditetapkan dalam rangka mendukung amanat dalam Pasal 23 ayat (1) huruf b Perppu No 1 Tahun 2020 dan merupakan perubahan atas Peraturan Bapepam dan LK Nomor IX.E.2 tentang Transaksi Material dan Perubahan Kegiatan Usaha Utama. Aturan tersebut memuat ketentuan:

    1. Perluasan cakupan definisi Transaksi Material yaitu setiap transaksi yang dilakukan oleh Perusahaan Terbuka atau Perusahaan Terkendali yang memenuhi batasan nilai sebagaimana diatur dalam POJK
    2. Perluasan batasan nilai Transaksi Material, semua nilai transaksi sama dengan 20% atau lebih dari ekuitas Perusahaan terbuka, menjadi nilai transaksi sama dengan 20% atau lebih dari ekuitas Perusahaan Terbuka dan apabila Perusahaan Terbuka mempunyai ekuitas negatif maka perhitungan nilai transaksi sama dengan 10% atau lebih dari total aset Perusahaan Terbuka
    3. Penyempurnaan lingkup Transaksi Material sehingga mencakup antara lain:
    4. Transaksi Materia yang mengganggu kelangsungan usaha
    5. Transaksi restrukturisasi BUMN
    6. Transaksi yang dilakukan oleh lembaga jasa keuangan dalam kondisi tertentu
    7. Dilusi yang nilainya material
    8. Pengaturan dalam POJK memberikan pengecualian bagi lembaga jasa keuangan yang melakukan Transaksi Material dikecualikan dari kewajiban melakukan keterbukaan informasi kepada publik, namun tetap wajib lapor ke OJK

Seluruh ketentuan dalam peraturan ini berlaku enam bulan setelah diundangkan kecuali pengaturan yang memberikan pengecualian bagi lembaga jasa keuangan dalam kondisi tertentu dari kewajiban melakukan prinsip keterbukaan di bidang Pasar Modal.

5. POJK No 18/POJK.03/2020 tentang Perintah Tertulis Untuk Penanganan Permasalahan Bank

POJK ini mengamanatkan OJK untuk mengambil langkah-langkah yang diperlukan untuk menjaga stabilitas sistem keuangan khususnya pada sektor perbankan sebagai penanganan atas dampak COVID-19. Secara umum POJK ini memuat ketentuan:

    1. Ruang lingkup pengaturan berlaku bagi Bank yaitu Bank Umum Konvensional (BUK), Bank Umum Syariah (BUS), Bank Perkreditan Rakyat (BPR), Bank Pembiayaan Rakyat Syariah (BPRS) dan kantor cabang dari bank yang berkedudukan di luar negeri.
    2. Kewenangan OJK memberikan Perintah Tertulis kepada Bank untuk melakukan penggabungan, peleburan, pengambilalihan dan/atau integrasi dan menerima penggabungan, peleburan, pengambilalihan dan/atau integrasi
    3. Perintah Tertulis diberikan kepada bank yang memenuhi kriteria berdasarkan penilaian OJK
    4. Kewajiban kepada Bank yang diberikan Perintah Tertulis untuk menyusun rencana tindak, serta melaksanakan dan menjaga kelancaran proses penggabungan, peleburan, pengambilalihan, dan/atau integrasi sesuai dengan rencana tindak
    5. Dalam pelaksanaan Perintah Tertulis oleh Bank untuk melakukan maupun menerima penggabungan, peleburan, pengambilalihan, dan/atau integrasi:
      1. Terdapat beberapa penyesuaian terhadap proses penggabungan, peleburan, pengambilalihan, dan/atau integrasi
      2. Bagi BUK atau BUS, berdasarkan persetujuan OJK dapat dikecualikan dari ketentuan mengenai kepemilikan tunggal pada perbankan Indonesia, kepemilikan saham bank umum, dan/atau batas waktu pemenuhan modal inti minimum
      3. Bagi BPR atau BPRS, jaringan kantor tetap dapat dipertahankan sesuai dengan wilayah jaringan kantor BPR atau BPRS yang telah berdiri.

Sumber: Kontan.

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What’s Next for Social Media in Indonesia?

How to make the most of Indonesia’s new Digital Platform law.

In late 2019, the Indonesian government decided to establish the nation’s new Digital Platform Law (PP PSTE no. 71/2019 on the Government Regulation on the Implementation of Electronic and Transaction System). The law, which revised the previous law (PP PSTE no. 82/2012), imposed a number of obligations on electronic system companies, not to mention social media companies. It requires social media companies to control the circulation of information on their platform, as well as protecting user data. However, merely placing obligations on social media companies will not be enough. The law needs follow-up in a few key areas.

First, the government and social media companies must establish a shared understanding of what counts as “restricted content.” In article 5, the Digital Platform Law orders social media companies to ensure that their platforms do not contain or accommodate the spread of restricted content. However, social media companies don’t always adhere to this policy. This is because both parties understand the term “restricted content” differently.

As mentioned in article 45 of the UU no. 19/2016 (the law that revises the Electronic Information and Transaction Law) the Indonesian government uses the term “restricted content” (“konten terlarang”). The term encompasses gambling, violation of moral code, blasphemy and/or defamation, extortion and/or threat, and hate-speech and false news. This definition carries a heavy political accent for two reasons: first, because the term tends to connote what the Indonesian government perceives as a threat, and second because it hands the Indonesian government the legal foundation to actually control the perceived threat and order its removal.

This definition is distinct from social media companies’ definition of restricted content. Social media companies like Facebook and Twitter don’t talk about restricted content but “harmful content” (“konten berbahaya”). They put harmful content, generally, into two categories: content that should be removed and content that should only be limited. The first category usually applies to content deemed to violate the companies’ policies, such as graphic content, bullying, violent content, adult nudity, etc. In this case, social media companies and the Indonesian government are in agreement.

However, the second category is different. Social media companies define the second category of “harmful content” as content that is not violating company policy yet impedes users from receiving authentic information. One of the major instances is false news (disinformation). Facebook argues that disinformation should only be reduced, not removed, due to the vague interpretation of what constitutes disinformation versus opinion. Twitter seconds this, arguing that disinformation should not be taken down since it does not harm the principle of democracy in the sense that it does not suppress voter turnout. While social media companies desire to reduce this type of “harmful content,” the Indonesian government demands its removal.

With these differences, social media companies are unlikely to comply with the Indonesian government’s order since they perceive the risk posed by each type of restricted content differently. To solve this problem, the Indonesian government, social media companies, and social media users need to have further discussion defining and responding to restricted content. The approved definition and response should provide protection for vulnerable communities.

Second, Indonesia’s government should encourage social media users to be more proactive. Indonesia’s current reporting mechanism suggests that the Indonesian government will proactively restrain content found to violate the new law. Although no objection has been raised to this authority, this doesn’t seem a very sound model for the future of content governance in Indonesia.

Of course, there are some interrelated issues that demand the proactive involvement of the government. Content that promotes terrorism, for instance, needs social media companies and the government to collaborate in exchanging information regarding terrorist organizations. However, the response should differ in other cases, such as disinformation. As previously argued, opinion and satire are often misinterpreted as disinformation. In spite of the Indonesian government’s duty to prevent potential unrest caused by deceptive information, its impartiality toward any content that does not uphold its agenda is uncertain. Therefore, the main actors in combating disinformation should not be the government but instead the users — both individuals and communities.

The Indonesian government should start encouraging individuals and communities to bear the duty to constrain the spread of disinformation on social media platforms by actively reporting content deemed to be violating the social media content policy. Social media companies should also carry out actions with similar goals. Aside from that, it is also important for social media companies to provide and promote an easily viewed and understood in-platform reporting mechanism. Social media companies have to make sure that content that is being reported by individuals and communities is acknowledged with a real response, without the company having to be pressured by the government.

This article originally posted by The Diplomat.

This publication is intended for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. Any reliance on the material contained herein is at the user’s own risk. You should contact a lawyer in your jurisdiction if you require legal advice.


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No permits required by foreigners in start-ups

The omnibus bill on job creation would scrap requirements for foreign workers in start-ups to obtain written permits, a move seen by businesses as an effort to help bridge the country’s skills gap.

The sweeping bill states that foreign workers must get written permits except for members of boards of directors and commissioners, diplomatic and consular staff, those working at start-ups, in professional training, on business visits, doing research for a short period or doing machine maintenance for production in emergency situations.

A presidential regulation would be issued to regulate certain positions and service periods to be fulfilled by the foreign workers.

Meanwhile, the current Labor Law stipulates that only diplomatic and consular staff are exempted from getting the written permits.

“It’s OK to hire foreign workers,” Indonesia E-Commerce Association (idEA) chairman Ignatius Untung told The Jakarta Post on Wednesday. “But instead of exempting them from acquiring a permit, the government can make the permit application easier.”

The government initiated the bill to cut regulatory red tape and ease business processes in the hope to attract more investment to jack up the country’s sluggish economic growth. If passed into law, the bill would amend more than 1,000 articles in some 80 prevailing laws.

Ignatius said easing foreign worker restrictions for the country’s start-ups could help Indonesia close its digital talent gap and encourage the transfer of knowledge. However, a permit was still needed to prevent foreign tech-savvy workers from flooding into the country and hampering the growth of local talent.

Indonesia’s digital economy is expected to reach US$130 billion in market value by 2025, triple the $40 billion valuation of 2019, with the e-commerce and ride-hailing sectors driving most of the growth, according to the 2019 e-Conomy SEA study conducted by United States technology giant Google, Singaporean holding company Temasek and management consulting firm Bain & Company.

The country itself has four unicorns, start-ups valued at more than $1 billion, out of 11 in Southeast Asia, the study revealed.

According to startupranking.com, a website that collects worldwide start-up data based on registration, Indonesia has the most start-ups in Southeast Asia with 2,192 as of February.

The government, Ignatius said, could partner with associations in determining what type of skills are still needed in the country and in issuing recommendations.

Ignatius added that Indonesia should let international universities open their branches in the country to educate future local data scientists and artificial intelligence (AI) engineers, among other professions.

Ease of hiring foreign labor in the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report 2019.

Ease of hiring foreign labor in the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2019. (World Economic Forum/Global Competitiveness Report 2019)

“Instead of waiting for the Indonesian diaspora to come home, we should bring the lessons here,” Ignatius said. “That way, we get the skills and we can retain the human resources too.”

The McKinsey Global Institute and the World Bank projected Indonesia would see a shortage of 9 million skilled and semiskilled workers in the digital sector between 2015 and 2030.

According to a McKinsey & Company report titled Automation and the Future of Work in Indonesia, there will be 10 million jobs in new occupations that do not exist today by 2030. A projected 27 million to 40 million new jobs will be created in the same period if Indonesians learn new skills, versus the 23 million jobs that could be displaced by automation.

“The challenge is how to reskill at least 23 million people whose jobs are being replaced. Not to mention that in 2030, there will be 25 million new people entering the workforce,” McKinsey Indonesia managing partner Philia Wibowo said in an interview with the Post in September.

Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Kadin) vice chairwoman for international relations Shinta Kamdani expressed confidence that Indonesian start-ups did not solely rely on foreign talent in running their businesses, despite acknowledging that the country still needed assistance in filling the digital talent gap.

“All of Indonesia’s unicorns are local start-ups. So, there is no need to have negative assumptions about foreign workers” Shinta said. “What’s important is that start-ups can develop, and they can bring benefits to the country.”

She went on to say that partnerships between local start-ups and international entities often happened. The start-ups, she added, should not limit their collaboration only to other local organizations or businesses.

This article originally posted by Jakarta Post.


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